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gdbear65
Old 07-30-04, 05:16 PM
Eating while working out?
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I work out first thing in the morning and because I want to get a full workout done before I go to work, I eat while I'm working out. Should I be eating mainly carbs to fuel my workout or should I have some protein as well? Currently I am taking a creatine supplement (NXCare's HyperGrowth) immediately after my workout followed by a protein drink fifteen to twenty minutes later. I was told that taking protein prior to creatine negates it's effectiveness, but I'm not convinced of that. Besides, by the time I'm done, I'm starting to feel hungry again.
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Puddles
Old 07-30-04, 07:25 PM
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I'm gonna ask a few questions here so we can figure out when would be best for you to eat and what you should eat. Eating during the workout is not ideal. The post workout shake with protein and carbs is good though.

Are you working out in a home gym or are you driving somewhere to train? How much time do you have from when you first wake up until when you start with the weights? Are you including cardio with your morning training?
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gdbear65
Old 07-31-04, 08:55 AM
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I guess my training is a little unconventional - my schedule for cardio is completely different than it is for strengthening. For strengthening, I hit the weights, in my home gym, 15 to 20 minutes after I wake up. My program is 4 days on and one day off. I do cardio 2 to 4 times per week and it's always after I've worked out. At the very least I do cardio on Mondays and Fridays (riding my bicycle to work), but it does not always coincide with a strengthening workout - I sometimes end up doing cardio on my off day.
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Puddles
Old 08-01-04, 08:39 AM
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Training that soon after you first wake up is not good. Your body needs fuel to facilitate muscle development and that fuel needs to be in your system for a while before you start to use it, eating while you're training isn't going to do it. One idea would be for you to set your alarm for about 2 hrs. before normal and eat a small meal, like cottage cheese so your body has something to work with and then follow up with your protein shake when you're done. Then an hour or so later eat a normal meal with protein. Another alternative would be for you to change the time of day that you train, maybe still doing some cardio in the morning but save the weight training for later in the day. Personally, I like to train after work, this way my nutritional needs are met through the day and my last meal before getting to the gym is about 2 hrs. before I train. I follow up with a snack (I don't digest shakes well) and then dinner is an hour later.

Here's an interesting article:




The Implications of Cortisol Release

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By: David Robson

To increase muscle size and correspondingly reduce body fat one needs to ensure that all aspects of the bodybuilding lifestyle are adhered to. Essentially, a correct bodybuilding lifestyle could be best described as a complex balancing act, and to complicate matters further what works for one person may not necessarily work for another.

Diet and training are two variables most often discussed concerning muscle building and fat loss. Although diet and training are fundamentally important variables for any bodybuilding program there are many other factors at play.

Hormone release is one factor that underpins many of the physiological reactions that cause the changes in muscle density a bodybuilder desires. For example testosterone, probably the best known hormone from a bodybuilding perspective, is released following a series of hormonal processes starting in the pituitary gland (situated below the frontal lobe of the brain).

Testosterone is important because it increases muscle protein synthesis and this is essentially what bodybuilders desire most. Other important hormones are growth hormone and insulin. Growth hormone is produced in the hypothalamus, which is situated above the pituitary gland, and is responsible for keeping the body in a youthful state by revitalizing the immune system, enhancing sexual function and most importantly for bodybuilders, stimulating muscle tissue repair. Insulin assists amino acid and glucose transport into muscle cells.

The three hormones briefly mentioned are termed anabolic because of their tissue building properties and accordingly are of paramount importance for bodybuilders.

These hormones act in three different ways: drobson


They manipulate enzyme activity (enhance chemical changes in the muscle cell)

They change the speed of transport of nutrients through the cell wall.

They enhance protein synthesis.

Cortisol


However, there is another hormone closely associated with bodybuilding. This hormone is cortisol, a steroid hormone, and is probably the most underrated of the four bodybuilding hormones overviewed in this article. Cortisol is termed catabolic as it has the opposite effect to testosterone, insulin and growth hormone in that it breaks down tissue.

In fact cortisol, which is released by the adrenal glands under conditions of high mental and physical stress and high temperature, is the bodyís primary catabolic hormone. The three main functions of cortisol are:


The reduction of protein synthesis.

The facilitation of protein to glucose.

The halting of tissue growth.
It is therefore essential that cortisol release is controlled if one is to facilitate muscle growth. As well as being released under conditions of stress and high temperature cortisol is also released first thing in the morning. Morning aerobics have been thought to be effective for this very reason.

However this is misguided thinking because exercising on an empty stomach first thing in the morning has been shown to actually intensify cortisolís effects thus resulting in further muscle loss, and consequently metabolic resistance to body fat loss.


There is not a lot a bodybuilder can do in terms of completely restricting cortisol release as, although cortisol can be problematic for bodybuilders, it is an important hormone nevertheless. The vital functions that cortisol govern are the regulation of inflammatory responses in the body and the balancing of blood sugar in times of stress.

It is excess cortisol that is the problem for bodybuilders not cortisol per se. The dangers of excess cortisol are:


Reduced growth hormone, and testosterone output.

Osteoporosis.

Reduced muscle and increased abdominal fat.

Impaired memory and learning.

Reduced glucose utilization.

Impaired immunity.

Controlling Cortisol Release


Although cortisol release cannot be prevented, it can, and should, be controlled. Controlling the release of cortisol can be achieved by employing the following methods:


Exercise (aerobically and with weights): This may seem like a paradox but correct exercise, although it increases stress, will negate the effects of cortisol in the long term. The key is to not overtrain and to do just enough to adequately stimulate the particular system being training (muscular or aerobic). Aerobic sessions should be kept at between 30 and 45 minutes and weight sessions should be no longer than 45 minutes.
The endorphin release from these two types of exercise should offset any release in cortisol. Exercise will, during and straight afterward, place the body in a catabolic state but provided the sessions are not to long and nutritional needs are met a relaxed state will ultimately be achieved, and cortisol release will be controlled. Weight training also increases growth hormone which offsets cortisone release.

Nutrition: Nutrition is important at all times of the day for bodybuilders. To control cortisol release eating first thing in the morning and directly after a workout are optimum times. This is because in these most stressful times insulin does not have the nullifying effect it normally has on cortisol and diet must facilitate an insulin release directly. Both carbohydrates and protein are important at these times.

Stress management: Given that cortisol is released in response to stressful life events, whether they be of a physical or psychological nature, it is important to try to control these events. For example, it would be wise to try to relax whenever possible and to try not to overreact to trivial things like losing ones shoes etc. Every time this happens cortisol is released and gains are compromised. Think of what we could achieve if stressful events were relatively few.

Supplement with glutamine: In addition to vitamin C, glutamine may help to reduce cortisol by supplying cortisol with blood glutamine. Cortisol will not have to destroy muscle to obtain it.

Sleep: Cortisol is at its lowest and growth hormone is at its highest during slow wave sleep (deepest stage of sleep). Ensure that this stage of sleep is attained every night.

Limiting caffeine intake: As little as 2-3 cups of coffee per day can elevate cortisol levels due to the stimulating effect of caffeine.

Increase vitamin C intake: Research has shown that patients receiving 3 grams of vitamin C per day experience lower cortisol levels (Peters, Anderson & Theron, 2001).

As one trains and diets according to the dictates of tried and tested bodybuilding strategies it is well worth noting the implications of cortisol release. Its effect on the body can be deleterious if not controlled effectively and the bodybuilder should strive to employ the methods outlined in this article if success is desired.

References


Peters EM, Anderson R. Theron AJ. Attenuation of increase in circulating cortisol and enhancement of the acute phase protein response in vitamin C-supplemented ultramarathoners. Int. J Sports Med 2001 Feb;22(2):120-6.
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Old 08-01-04, 08:40 AM
One more good read for ya...
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What Happens to your Muscles Overnight? Article
------------------------------------------------------------------------
By: John Berardi

Do you remember back when your momma read bedtime stories to you? You know, illustrated children's books spinning tales of old Gepetto and Pinnochio, Jack and his Beanstalk, and Raskolnikov and his Crime and his Punishment. What's that?

No one ever read Crime and Punishment to you? Okay, just kidding about that one, but in all seriousness, one of the themes that makes a great children's story is the clear delineation between good and evil. When you're a kid, you know whom to love and you know whom to hate.

Thinking back, one of my favorite stories was the legend of Robin Hood. This story told of a daring outlaw who robbed from the rich and gave to the poor. In my youth I was enamored with his cunning and his loyalty to his friends. It was always satisfying when his quick wit allowed him to make a fool of the powerful Sheriff of Knottingham.

On one occasion, Robin and his men were able to sneak into an archery contest and win the first prize, a golden arrow. Although this contest was a trap set by Knottingham, Robin and his merry men had good on their side and were able to win the arrow and escape capture. I've liked the underdog ever since.

Unfortunately in today's supplement market, a modern day Sherwood Forest if you will, a story is being told that's the antithesis of the Robin Hood story. You see, in this bedtime tale, the rich Knottinghams of the industry are robbing from the consumer, and they're doing so with promises of golden arrows.

So, true to my love of the underdog, you know where this article is headed. Just call me Robin Hood (and no, I don't wear tights!).


A Little Knowledge Is Dangerous


Weight lifters today are more informed about training and nutrition than they were a decade ago. But as often is the case, a little information can be dangerous. Unfortunately, you and your wallet are the ones in danger in this case.

Take the phenomenon of overnight catabolism, for example. First, you learn what the word catabolic means. It's the opposite of anabolic and has to do with muscle wasting. Then you learn that you become catabolic during sleep at night. As a result, you make it your goal to prevent this catabolism at any cost.

Now here comes the dangerous part. The big bad Knottinghams of the supplement world realize your unnecessary desperation and begin to use this information against you, spinning scientific-sounding tales based on spurious assumptions and false promises.

They come as a wolf dressed in sheep's clothing and, unlike the fairy tales of our youth, it becomes difficult to distinguish the heroes from the villains.

Keeping with the overnight catabolism theme, Knottingham's new golden arrow is his so-called "nighttime anti-catabolic protein formula." He's been trying to convince would-be supplement consumers that his super expensive, slow-released protein blends are the only way to prevent wasting away to nothing overnight.

Using fancy words and a couple of inappropriate references, he claims that the conventional protein powders on the market today are useless for overnight consumption and that only his special high-tech blend will make you huge.

With furrowed brow, I unsheath my arrow.


What Happens When the Lights Go Out


When tucking into bed at night, you're about to embark on a six to eight hour journey of rest and repair. After all, it's been a long day in the forest. However, during this time you aren't feeding the body. We call this the post-absorptive period. If you haven't heard of this post-absorptive period before, let me explain.

Throughout the day, the first hour or two after eating is referred to as the post-prandial period. During this time, the body digests and absorbs nutrients. When you eat and even during the post-prandial period, the body's maintenance needs for blood glucose and energy are met. At this time it begins to synthesize proteins and glycogen in the liver and muscle.

Once this period is over, the post-absorptive period sets in. After the absorption of the nutrients from your last meal is complete and the nutrients in the blood have been delivered, the body begins using those stored nutrients for energy.

Then, in order to maintain blood glucose and tissue metabolism, the liver and muscle start metabolizing and sending glucose and amino acids out into the blood.

If you're eating frequently during the day, the overnight period is your longest post-absorptive period. It should be no surprise that after an overnight fast and a long post-absorptive period, some of the muscle glycogen and muscle protein will have been depleted. In fact, research has verified this hypothesis and shown specifically that after the overnight fast, muscle protein breakdown exceeds muscle protein synthesis.

Interestingly, the opposite is true in the splanchnic region (gut, liver, etc) because in these tissues, synthesis exceeds breakdown. Therefore during the night, muscle is broken down to feed the gut/liver/etc and presumably other tissues as well (1).


Feeding For Increased Muscle Mass: Nuts And Berries Of The Forest Won't Do It


Understanding what happens after an overnight fast, I'm sure you're now wondering how you might keep out of the post absorptive period and prevent overnight muscle losses. Well, the secret is in understanding how the body handles protein and amino acids under normal conditions. Remember, net muscle-protein status (anabolism or catabolism) is determined by a simple equation: protein synthesis minus protein breakdown.

Large increases in blood amino acid levels (100-200% above the fasted baseline) are necessary for increasing protein synthesis. Therefore a protein meal containing at least 20-30 grams of fast-digesting protein (like whey) can accomplish such a goal.

Interestingly, to inhibit protein breakdown we only need small increases in blood amino-acid levels (25-50% above fasted baseline). However, these small increases must be prolonged (4-5 hours) in order to realize this inhibition of protein breakdown. In this situation, a slow-digesting protein like casein is necessary.

So, at this point you might be asking why you can't simply consume whey protein every few hours in order to maintain super-high levels of blood amino acids. It makes sense that this would keep amino acid levels high for a very long period of time, thus stimulating protein synthesis and preventing protein breakdown, right? Well, not so fast, Little John.

Unfortunately, when large increases in blood amino acid levels (+100%) are achieved via intravenous infusion for a prolonged period of six hours, protein synthesis only increases from the 30 minute to the two-hour mark. After two hours, protein synthesis rates almost immediately return to baseline.

Unbelievably, protein synthesis rates remain at baseline levels from the two hour to the six hour marks, even with the same level of hyperaminoacidemia (2).

So it's clear that keeping amino acid levels elevated all day won't keep protein synthesis rates racing along. It's my guess that if you were to try to do this, breakdown would simply balance synthesis and you wouldn't get any bigger.

It's my theory that you need those phasic bursts in amino-acid levels to stimulate protein synthesis.

If you're keeping up, this presents a confusing picture as to how to time your meals for optimal protein growth. In my opinion, large bursts of hyperaminoacidemia every four hours or so (to stimulate synthesis in a phasic manner), coupled with a prolonged low-level hyperaminoacidemia (to chronically inhibit breakdown) may be the best way to coerce the muscles into getting huge.

So how can you accomplish this? That's easy, at least when you're awake.

Consider the "pros" and "cons" of the bodybuilder's two main sources of protein:


Whey protein intake (30g) produces large transient hyperaminoacidemia. After an hour, blood amino acids are elevated by about 300%. After two hours, about 92%. After four hours, you're back to baseline. This is ideal for increased protein synthesis but does nothing for protein breakdown (3,4).

Casein protein intake (30g) produces moderate but prolonged hyperaminoacidemia. After two hours, blood amino acids are elevated by about 32% and after four hours by about 35%. After seven hours, blood amino acids are still elevated. This is ideal for prevention of protein breakdown but does nothing for protein synthesis (3,4).
The next question is, where the heck are you gonna find whey and casein protein in Sherwood Forest? Well, if you can find a cow or a goat, you're in luck.

Milk protein is composed of 80% casein and 20% whey. Milk is interesting in that, believe it or not, the whey and casein fractions are absorbed separately. In one study, subjects consumed skimmed milk and were evaluated over the course of eight hours.

With milk-protein ingestion, there's a rapid rise in blood amino acids within one hour (probably as a result of the whey fraction), a plateau from one to three hours (a combination of simultaneous whey and casein absorption), and then there's a progressive decline over the course of the next eight hours.

However, blood amino acids are still elevated at the eight hour point as a result of the casein fraction. (5).

While this discussion has only dealt with milk proteins, it may be safe to say that most animal proteins are probably similar to casein in their slow digestion and absorption profiles. So, during the day, eating a combination of fast digesting and slow-digesting proteins every four hours or so is probably the best way to maintain a highly positive daily protein status.

Again, this can be done with milk proteins alone or with a combination of whey or milk protein and animal protein at each meal.

In the end, though, don't get too obsessed with seeking out your favorite cow every four hours. Research has shown that eating animal protein alone does a nice job of increasing post-prandial protein synthesis, too.


Don't Let The Sheriff's Men Steal Your Muscles Overnight


All these recommendations are interesting for the waking hours while you're robbing from the rich, but what about at night when bedding down with the lovely Maid Marian?

Well, if I had an ideal nighttime protein shake to set by the bed, it would include a combination of ingredients that promotes two large bursts of hyperaminoacidemia every four hours (leading to two bursts of synthesis - one at bedtime and one four hours later) and a prolonged low-level hyperaminoacidemia (to inhibit breakdown).

Now, part of this can be accomplished with a milk-isolate blend taken immediately before bed. There are many such blends on the market.

At this point, you might be asking yourself why I simply don't recommend milk. Well, I'm hesitate to suggest milk as a result of the recent data showing that unfermented, intact milk (skim or whole) may not be all that great for you. The high incidence of milk allergies and lactose intolerance coupled with a huge insulin index makes me hesitant to give my endorsement to the moo juice.

However, milk products like cottage cheese behave differently than milk and are another solid choice. The whey content of cottage cheese could use some beefing up though, so don't be afraid to throw in some whey or milk isolates.

Although quite effective, unfortunately this route doesn't allow for the second burst of fast protein and hyperaminoacidemia that we want about four hours into our slumber. So the simplest way to do this would be to make a big shake/meal before bed, consume half at bedtime and the other half in the middle of the night.


The Golden Arrows


You can certainly wake up in the middle of the night to provide the body with some protein nutrition, but some people believe doing so will disturb sleep patterns and in the long run, you'll be worse for the waking.

So why not formulate a special high-tech protein powder that will accomplish our goal of two large bursts of hyperaminoacidemia every four hours (two bursts of synthesis - one at bedtime and one four hours later) and a prolonged low-level hyperaminoacidemia (to inhibit breakdown) without having to wake up to get it?

Such a formula might contain 15g of regular whey protein, 30g of casein, and 15g of time-released, encapsulated whey protein that sits around in the gut for four hours and is magically released during one big digestive burst at that time.

With such a formula, the 60g protein dose would definitely keep you covered for the overnight fast and might help you pack on a little extra muscle.

Excited yet? Well, don't fall for the trap. I'm sorry to tell you that such a formula is probably impossible to make. First of all, I'm not aware of any technology that will allow such a precision release of protein at a predetermined time. Secondly, if there were a way to do this, the costs would certainly be prohibitive.

But what about the current crop of overnight protein formulas popping up in magazine ads? What are they supposed to do? Well, unfortunately they don't even claim to accomplish the goals I set out above.

All they claim to do is provide you with a slow released protein that keeps blood levels of amino acids low and stable all night, thus minimizing protein breakdown. Considering that plain old cottage cheese can accomplish this goal, these formulations aren't so revolutionary.

In fact, either milk protein blends or homemade whey/casein combinations may even be superior to slow digesting proteins alone, as indicated above. The combination of fast and slow may be best for both increasing muscle protein synthesis and preventing muscle protein breakdown.

So why the need for fancy overnight protein products? At a price of four to seven bucks per 50g of protein (based on the brands I've looked at), I can't see one. All I can see is the rich robbing from the misinformed poor.


A Happy Ending


To summarize this little bedtime story:


About halfway through the night your body runs out of muscle-building fuel and leaves you in a catabolic state. To prevent this, it's a good idea to get some protein before bed.
The so-called "nighttime anti-catabolic protein formulas" hitting the market are overpriced, overhyped, and aren't even ideal for battling catabolism.
A better and more-affordable choice is plain old cottage cheese and/or a blend of proteins like those found in Low-Carb Grow! (Milk itself isn't a good choice however.)
Armed with these arrows of information, I'll now let you go do battle with catabolism and all those unscrupulous Sheriff of Knottinghams out there. Now, where'd that little muffin Maid Marian run off to?
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Old 08-01-04, 08:58 AM
OK...one more good read...
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Combatting catabolism/cortisol
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
By: Dustin Parsons B.S.


The hormonal response to training is without a doubt one of the top factors to a successful training program. Unfortunately, it is also one of the most complex variables. For this reason, the hormonal factor in training is often either misunderstood, or simply not considered. This is an error that can have detrimental consequences to a training program. In this article, we will turn much needed attention to the muscle-eating hormone cortisol.

The hormone cortisol is definitely one of the least understood, but most crucial hormones to consider during a training program. Cortisol is a hormone released from the cortex of the adrenal glands. Cortisol is catabolic, which means it works AGAINST testosterone, hGH and IGF by BREAKING DOWN the proteins in your muscles and organs and using the amino acids that are released for energy. For this reason, SUPPRESSING cortisol as much as possible is the goal in training.

The Cortisol Hormone:

Increases levels of enzymes that break down protein into amino acids
Inhibits protein synthesis
Converts amino acids to carbohydrates (gluconeogenesis)
Accelerates the mobilization and use of fat for energy during exercise
Cortisol And Training Style

Every person that has ever trained for a sport or activity knows that certain styles of training elicit specific results. For example, it is widely known that weight training is the preferred training method for increasing muscle mass and strength, while one must train aerobically to minimize body fat and increase cardiovascular endurance. But why is this the case? The answer can be found when we look at the hormonal responses that each style of training produces.



Aerobic training stimulates a lower testosterone, and a higher cortisol response following a training session when compared to weight training. At the hormonal level, this is why aerobic training is very limited in making muscles grow in size. This response can be physiologically justified when we take into account smaller muscle fibers are more aerobically efficient.

For this reason, muscle fibers (especially type 1) respond SPECIFICALLY to the training stimulus by NOT growing larger, and in some cases SHRINKING in size so that they can function most efficiently for aerobic work. This is why too much aerobic training during a muscle or strength building program can limit gains in strength and muscle mass. (3)

In the opposite manner, weight training produces a much higher testosterone response, and lower overall cortisol response than aerobic training, which is the sole reason that weight training makes your muscles hypertrophy (grow), while aerobic training typically does not. (3) The reason the body responds hormonally to weight training in this fashion is because larger muscles are needed to produce the strength and anaerobic endurance that is required of this type of activity. Again, we see the body's hormonal response is SPECIFIC to its adaptational needs.

Glycogen Is Down, Cortisol Is Up

Probably the most important point to remember about cortisol and diet is that when glycogen (stored carbohydrate) in the body gets low, cortisol levels rise. This makes perfect sense when you keep in mind that carbohydrate is your body's preferred source of calories. When the body does not have enough precious carbohydrates available, alternative sources of energy must be found. The only other options the body has for calories are fat and protein. Rising cortisol levels will speed up the breakdown of lean tissue (protein) in your body and convert the released amino acids into glucose (carbohydrate) for fuel. At the same time, rising cortisol will speed up the release of free fatty acids (from your body fat stores), making more body fat available for aerobic metabolism. (3,4)

Despite the fact that your body may use more fat when your glycogen levels are down, it will also use more muscle. This is obviously an especially undesirable effect for athletes or fitness enthusiasts who require strength and muscle mass for their sport or endeavors. Further complicating the problem, reduced muscle mass will slow the metabolism, ultimately HINDERING further fat loss efforts despite the immediate increase in fat burning.

If you want to maximize muscle mass, strength and body composition over the long term, you need to keep your glycogen levels as full as possible. This means that you need to make carbohydrates (preferably from complex sources) the greatest source of calories in the diet, and eat them with every meal. It means that you should replenish your depleted glycogen stores immediately after exercise to lower elevated post-exercise cortisol levels, best accomplished by taking a high-glycemic carbohydrate meal or drink as soon as possible after a workout.* (1,2)


More Is Not Always Better

Many people train with the philosophy that more is always better. "If you can get that much development from 8 sets, than 16 sets will produce twice as much." Unfortunately, weight training follows the law of diminishing returns, which means that you get the most gains from the first set of exercise, and less and less benefit from each set thereafter. What can happen when you follow the "more is better" rule too closely? A possible result is continuously elevated cortisol levels; a condition commonly referred to as overtraining. Too much and too frequent training can actually cause an overtrained state and a REDUCTION in muscle size and strength via elevated cortisol, proving that in strength training, sometimes more can be WORSE.

Always think of your training in terms of QUALITY, not QUANTITY. Huge training volumes only put a Band-Aid on poor training technique. Knowing and adhering to the principles, good form in the exercises, high mental focus and intensity, proper rest and proper periodization eliminate the need for an extreme amount of training volume to get great training results. In addition, following these rules might even HELP your progress by keeping average cortisol levels lower.

Indeed there is a lot to know about hormones and training. In previous articles, we have examined several of the anabolic hormones and how various training styles and techniques can manipulate the hormonal response for specific outcomes. Really no discussion on hormones and training would be complete without understanding at least the key points of the cortisol response. After all, if you fail to control cortisol levels, all of the anabolics in the world cannot stop the loss of lean body mass and strength that will result.

Semi-indirectly, I have shot down the validity of low carb/high protein diets in this article because of the cortisol response that glycogen depletion causes. The point was presented that high cortisol levels can be beneficial in increasing the use of fat as a fuel source. This, in itself, would seem beneficial to those interested in fat reduction or improving body composition. It would indeed be beneficial if the loss of lean body mass was not, at the same time, so devastating to body composition and fat loss in the long run. Remember that losing lean body mass slows the metabolism, which can promote weight gain in the future. In addition, because body composition (body fat percentage) is a ratio of fat weight to lean body weight, the loss of lean body mass alone can increase body composition measurements.

If you have any questions or comments regarding this article or have any article ideas, please feel free to contact parsons@issaonline.com.

References

Conley, M.S. and M.H. Stone. Carbohydrate Ingestion/ Supplementation for Resistance Exercise and Training. Sports Med. 21(1):7-17. 1996.
Kraemer et al. Hormonal responses to consecutive days of heavy-resistance exercise with or without nutritional supplementation. Journal of Applied Physiology. 85 (4):1544. 1998.
National Strength and Conditioning Association, Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2000.
Wilmore, J.H. Costill, D.L. Physiology of sport and exercise, 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 1999.

* Ingesting a high-glycemic solution immediately after a workout may have the additional benefit of increasing the post-workout hGH and IGF response, but also carry the drawback of decreasing the testosterone response. (2) This may suggest that strength exclusively athletes may wish to wait an hour after a workout before eating, while those trying to gain lean body mass may benefit more from an immediate post-workout meal containing high-glycemic carbohydrates.
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Old 08-01-04, 10:52 PM
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Good articles! Thx :cool:
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