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Old 03-21-06, 12:23 PM
The Influence of Weightlifting on the Woman's Body
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The Influence of Weightlifting on the Woman's Body

The following article was originally written in 1987 by Dr. Spassov, but the majorty of the statistics and theories still apply today.

Recently, more and more women have become interested in the sport of weightlifting. A considerable number of women in many countries have been working out and participating in contests. This article is to provide further information regarding the influence of weight training on women.

There are few coaches of woman athletes who do think of the essential difference between the female and male body's endurance to weight training. In most cases, only decreasing the weight loading for women compared with men differentiates the approach. Here arises the question if this condition only is enough to provide for the conditions of qualified and highly effective strength training of women athletes.

Nowadays, most of the sportswomen apply various forms of weight training in different periods of their annual training cycle, and some of them even throughout the year. Nevertheless, the capabilities of the women's nervous and muscular systems and their aptitude to weight training have not yet been studied completely. We will, therefore, try to survey what the specialists have established until now, using also the results of our work with women competitors in swimming, rowing, track and field and volleyball.

As a result of one study comprising 272 women and 253 men, Tittel established that the maximum strength of women is by 40% less than that of men. Hettinger discovered that 19 to 45 year old women possessed a lower training ability than men of the same age. He found out that women's muscular strength grew considerably slower than men's. In a word, placed and compared under the same conditions, women have smaller capabilities of displaying strength than men. We will clarify the most important reasons for these differences that are of significance to women's weight training.

According to V. Korinevsky, R. Motiljanskaja, and T. Hettinger it is obvious that men have a better ratio of the active muscle mass to the adipose tissue (fat) than women, whose body fat percentage is higher. Women are of smaller height and have a relatively longer trunk. The difference of height in standing and seated position is 12-15 cm for women and 9.5-10.7 cm for men, and because of this the center of gravity in the woman's body is found lower than in men. Woman's pectoral girdle is less developed on account of the pelvis, the latter being of a particular structure.

These proportions in the woman's body structure provide for the greater stability of the legs, but limit the speed of walking and running and the height of jump. As was noted above there are differences concerning the mass of the developed muscles - muscles provide for not more than 35% of a woman's bodyweight and 42% of a man's. Even if we assume to compare a man and a woman carrying the same muscle mass, the strength of the woman will be less because of the bigger fat layer. The general dynamometrics gives the following indices - 53% of a woman's bodyweight and 72% of a man's; deadlift power - 135 (woman) and 187.6 (man); average strength of the two arms - 50.5 (woman) and 83.1 kg. (man). Due to the lower tissue consistency and the height differences women's average bodyweight is less than men's (67 kg). In order to ignore the height and demonstrate the lower consistency of women's tissues we will note that each centimeter of women's height weighs 366 grams, while men's - 385 grams.

When untrained women and men are concerned the difference between men's and women's muscle strength amounts to 20%. Should the woman and man perform the same weight-training regimen for a week the man will achieve growth of 5.8 percent, while the woman - only 3.9 percent. Should weight training be applied for a prolonged period of time, women's strength will constitute 45-47% of men's strength.

The results achieved by women last for a shorter time than those achieved by men. Woman's training condition is lost more quickly. For that reason she has to train systematically and regularly. Since women's growth stops earlier and hence their trunk remains relatively longer, weight training causes greater strain on the spinal column, wherein exists the danger of intervertebral disc injury. The structure of the pelvis is inconvenient for the execution of some exercises, as it is broadened in its lower part, its outlet being closed by a muscle barrier, formed by muscles of the pelvic bottom. With the strain on the higher-located muscles the internal abdominal pressure is increased, whereas the lowest muscles are most loaded. For that reason it is better to look for such exercises to develop the different muscles that would provide women, beginners in particular, with the possibility to train in a lying position.

Today, complete interruption of workouts during the menstruation period is not recommended. It is normal to reduce the loading, however, exercises are to be continued, provided the menstruation takes its normal course and no gynecological changes occur. Certain physical exercises even ease the indisposition usually felt by women in this period. Weight training normally increases the blood flow in the abdominal and pelvis areas and could cause prolonged bleeding and injury to the whole cycle. That is why light training is recommended: arms to be trained by lighter weights at a lying position.

An important feature of the characteristics of the woman's body is that the absolute and the relative share of the adipose tissue is bigger than that of a man's - 28% against 18% accordingly. The fat is found predominantly in the areas of breasts, pelvis, and thighs and is a reserve required in the great energy consumption periods of pregnancy, giving birth, suckling and menstruation.

In contemporary training great loadings, to speed and power in particular, put requirements not only on the supporting and motor systems, but on cardiovascular and respiratory systems as well, in which some anatomic and morphological differences are noticed too. For example, the diaphragm of a woman is normally placed higher and therefore we have the relatively transversal location of the heart. The weight of a woman's heart is 10-15% less than that of man of the same bodyweight and height (U. N. Novoronnikov, S. P. Letunov). The same applies to its volume (U. N. Arhunski). The smaller size of the woman's heart stands for the smaller number of heartbeats. That is why the larger minute capacity is achieved through the higher frequency of contractions. Nevertheless, studies have shown that the female blood-minute capacity is lower than that of men.

Research results show that these differences are most obviously manifested in the speed and weight loads when the woman's body reaction is expressed mainly through the pulse frequency, while men's contractions are slower but more powerful. Similar differences are noticed in the recuperation period, especially if the loading implies higher strain for a longer time.

There are differences in the respiratory system's operation. The number of breaths in women is larger. According to data of A. G. Dembo the vital capacity of women's lungs is 2500-5000 cm3, while that of the men's lungs is 3200-7200 cm3. This peculiarity influences the lungs ventilation (3-5 lt. for women and 5-7 lt. for men at rest). Hence the oxygen intake is different (150-160 cm3 for women and 180-250 cm3 for men). With high intensity physical loading the percentage of growth of women's oxygen consumption is bigger and, to a certain extent, compensates the lower percentage of its utilization.

The prolonged studies of M. V. Elkina, C. A. Jagunova and I. N. Startseva, and E. Zaharieva, show that heavy training loading does not influence the menstruation cycle negatively. However, menstruation has a considerable impact on working capacity (especially strength resistance). The pulse becomes quicker, the arterial blood pressure is lowered, and the beats and minute capacity of the heart is reduced (mainly during the first days of the menstruation period). There exists data on the decrease of the vital capacity and the basic metabolism. In the first days of the menstruation cycle the erythrocytes number and hemoglobin percentage is reduced. Therefore, the physiological capabilities of the oxygen supply to working muscles in these days are reduced. That is why the reactions of the cardiovascular system to bigger resistance are expressed mainly by the following: quickened pulse and a prolonged time of its recovery, small increase of maximum blood pressure and large increase of minimum blood pressure. In fact this is an extremely unfavorable reaction of the body that brings about undesirable sequences sometimes.

Though certain authors assert that the working capacity during the menstruation cycle is not reduced (A. B. Handelsmann, K. M. Smirnov, H. Noak, and K. Tittel) the following regularity can be observed: the working capacity curve is lowest, during pre-menstruation and the first days of menstruation. Then it goes upwards to reach its peak in the first days of the post-menstruation period (S. A. Jagunov, L. N. Startseva). Our work with competitive women athletes, in weightlifting, swimming, track and field athletics, tennis, fencing and rowing, doing weight training showed that the approach to women athletes' working capacity during menstruation is quite individual. Within the competing experience of sportswomen we came upon some cases in which their positive emotions placed them in such a position that in spite of the side effects of menstruation, they achieved results higher than their personal records. Regardless of these cases however, most women, athletes included, consider menstruation as an obstacle to their preparation and participation in contests. On the basis of the aforementioned, we can make the following statements and recommendations concerning women's special weight training methods:

1. Weight training is quite necessary. It favorably influences the general functional condition of a woman's body, provided a progressive beforehand preparation has been executed in conformity with all peculiarities (morphological, functional, psychical) of a woman's body.

2. The prolonged loadings connected with large concussions of the internal organs are to be avoided. Exercises of this nature must be of short duration followed by longer breaks. An individual approach is to be applied during the menstruation period - the weight exercises for some women have to be substituted by other ones that would not cause great resistance in the abdominals. The women that will go on with their weight training have to decrease the loading and to execute the exercises lying down - mainly for arms and calves.

3. The weight training is to be preceded by a prolonged preparation of the supporting and motor apparatus. Progressive resistance exercises are to be executed with the aid of a great variety training facilities.

4. Weight training has a favorable influence in the post-menstruation period, when the exercises with a barbell can reach 60-70% of all the strength exercises. Most often, in this period, maximum weight is achieved.

5. In view of the physiological characteristics of a woman's body it is essential to emphasize that women more easily accept, and have better results in, the disciplines involving power endurance, than in those that require maximum strength or explosive power. In this relation swimming is a good example. The performance of the best women swimmers is not inferior to men's and even the national records for men in some countries - renowned for their sports traditions - are less than the world records for women.

6. When we have a goal to develop women's maximum strength we must give preference to work up to refusal or 2-3 repetitions of 90-95% of the maximum weight.

7. Special attention is to be paid to squats with barbell at the back of the neck. Being of particular importance to sports practice it is included in the exercises of all training regimens. It is necessary to train both squat and high squat regardless of sport discipline exercised by the athlete. In this case, it is important that the legs and the pectoral girdle, where large muscular groups are found, increase their strength very quickly; it means they can undertake and overcome considerable weights. The main thing to be taken into consideration is that the connection between the pectoral girdle (that undertakes and maintains the weight) and the legs (that perform yielding and overcoming work) is the lower back. Its relatively weak muscles characterize the latter: its bone support being the spinal column only. These conditions are insufficient for the low back to correspond to the strength level of the legs and pectoral girdle. Besides, the technique of the squat itself suggests big difficulties: when we start the squat the muscles perform yielding work and the weight moves downwards. When the end position is reached the legs start the overcoming work of raising upward. Very often this is accompanied by the so called "shaking", so that by striking each other the hip and the calf ensures the "spring", thus helping the raising upwards. In this moment, the inertia of the movement of the 'weight downwards must be eliminated and the upward movement be started. The meeting of the two forces in the low back area where they are mainly applied result in a tremendous compression - several times bigger than the weight with which the squat is done. As a consequence the internal abdominal resistance and the load to the spinal column are increased sharply. No doubt the resistance on the whole body is very big, but we focus our attention on one unit of the body that has shortcomings of an anatomical and physiological nature. The construction of the spinal column consisting of vertebrae, separated by gristly discs, though very strong, in cases of light staggering implies danger of a sharp increase of the load between two vertebrae only. Since the ability to make compensating movements in the squat is limited, heavy injuries can occur. Certainly we consider a case when the squat and the raising upwards are done with a barbell of a maximum or a sub-maximum weight. In the remaining cases (weight of 80% or less) with the required attention, concentration and proper beforehand preparation the injuries will be almost excluded. Nevertheless, it is obligatory that the exercise be performed with a belt, which has the supplementary advantage of maintaining the required heat in the low back area. We recommend the following exercises: for the abdominals - leg raises, sit-ups and bent-arm pullover; for the oblique abdominal - side twists and side inclines; for the back - "good morning" exercises and deadlift. Should all these conditions be observed, we recommend that about 50% of the leg exercises be other than a squat with a barbell at the back of the neck. Recommendations are leg presses on a leg press machine, carrying a partner on your back down an incline etc.

8. After the execution of weight training, women athletes have to spend not less than 20-30 minutes for relaxation. That aims at both quicker recuperation and meeting aesthetic requirements. As a result of a heavier workout muscle hypertrophy occurs: since the muscles are filled in with blood, their length having been decreased after the heavy work. This state of the muscles reduces the joints amplitude as a consequence to which woman's movements become clumsy and awkward. The many repetitions of this state transform the woman's figure, it acquires the manners of a man. This has an impact not only on the woman herself but on the sport she trains also. That is why relaxation exercises have to be attached with the same importance as to loading ones. In this relation, both water massage and swimming are considered to be most suitable. It is desirable that each workout ends with relaxation exercises, followed by one of the three suggested forms of intercourse with water. Bathing after the weight training is to be done with hot water for a prolonged time and be finished with contrast bath (alternating hot and cool water).

Besides the above-mentioned smaller strength capabilities compared to men, women have several advantages that have to be taken into consideration:

• In general, women are more flexible. Flexibility helps them in the technical performance of the movements, most often with amplitude close to the required one. Our experience showed that women execute easily and more correctly the classical heavy athletics exercises - the snatch and the clean and jerk.

• Women benefit from their greater flexibility; they are less likely to be injured in sports-related activities.

• Weight training is welcome and arouses the interest of sportswomen not only for the possible benefit with regard to the discipline they train. It also enables them to satisfy their natural striving for emancipation and equality, suppressed in them in the course of thousands of years. Entering an area of strength that until recently has been of interest only to men - they are very careful and concentrated, what makes work with them pleasant and fruitful.

• No other but weight exercises achieve the overall toning of every muscle of the physique and exert a positive effect on spirits. For women, who are usually more emotional than men, it is of vital importance to progress in their sports discipline.

• Generally women are more diligent and disciplined. This is particularly important to meeting the main requirement of weight training progress - the regular workouts. It brings about important conditions that characterize the woman's training process, the latter being balanced and advantageous even in training with weights, which until very recently has been considered to be purely a men's activity.

I do not doubt that, in spite of the aforementioned, most people perceive women's weightlifting as a rather dangerous job. Apropos of this, we can observe that there exists other sport in which the momentary strength resistance is considerably higher than in weightlifting. Such examples can be found in the track and field athletics - jumping, throwing, running 100m, acrobatics, gymnastics, rowing etc. It is also important that the technique of the competitive and auxiliary exercises in the weightlifting sport provide the possibility for muscles and parts of the body under power strain to work in a most convenient position, favorable from a biomechanical point of view. At the same time power strain in a number of sports involves unfavorable position of body parts, twisting of the joints and unfavorable impact on woman's internal organs.

The highest power strain developed in the weightlifting sport can reach up 165% of the amount of the lifted weight -at the moment of the maximum effort in the second pull. The heaviest weight lifted by a woman so far is the achievement of Karyn Tartner (USA) in the clean and jerk-137.5kg, hence the maximum power strain could have been (theoretically) 226.9kg Though not knowing K. Tartner's exact bodyweight we are sure that she achieved this result in the 82.5kg bodyweight category. An acrobat (woman) who is doing a double back somersault develops power that is 5-6 times bigger than her own bodyweight. If we assume that she weighs 50kg, then the maximum power strain will vary from 250 to 300kg.

The power strain in weightlifting sport observed with women is considerably lower than the power strain involved in many disciplines defined as women's.

Certainly the results achieved by women weightlifters will grow higher from now on, with the application of correctly designed methods, however weightlifting is not dangerous; even more it can become a very good vehicle to obtain physical and health strengthening of women.

Through the symmetrical loading of all muscle groups of the body, weightlifting can contribute to the building of strong, well-shaped and proportionate athletic figure, it can strengthen the joints and improve the physiological functions the body.

This determines the great merits of, and respect to, those who have already begun and whom we speak of as pioneers: those who have turned over a new page in the development of our sport.

Lifting during the menstruation period:

Complete interruption of workouts during the menstruation period is not recommended. It is normal to reduce the loading, however, exercises are to be continued, provided the menstruation takes its normal course and no gynecological changes occur. Certain physical exercises even ease the indisposition usually felt by women in this part of the cycle. Weight training normally increases the blood flow in the abdominal and pelvis areas and could cause prolonged bleeding and injury to the whole cycle. That is why light training is recommended, arms to be trained by lighter weights at a lying position.

However, menstruation has a considerable impact on working capacity of women (especially strength resistance). Though certain authors assert that the working capacity during the menstruation period is not reduced (A. B. Handelsmann,K. M. Smirnov, 1963, H. Noak, K. Tittel 1955 etc.) the following regularity can be observed: the working capacity curve is lowest, during the premenstruation period end the first menstruation days. Then it goes upwards to reach its peak in the first days of the postmenstrustion period (S. A. Jagunov, L. N. Stattzeva). Our work with competitive women athletes in the weightlifting, swimming, track and field athletics, tennis, fencing and rowing doing weight training showed that the approach to women athletes working to capacity during the menstruation is quite individual. Within the competing experience of sportswomen we came upon some cases in which their motivation placed them in such a position that in spite of the side effects of menstruation they achieved results higher than their personal records. Regardless of these cases, however, most women, athletes included, consider menstruation as an obstacle to their preparation and participation in contests. Considering all of the above, we can make the following statements and recommendations concerning women's special weight training methods: It is desirable that each workout ends with relaxation exercises.


Weight training is quite necessary. It favorably influences the general functional condition of a woman's body, provided a progressive beforehand preparation has been executed in conformity with all peculiarities (morphological, functional, psychical) of a woman's body.
The prolonged loadings connected with large concussions of the internal organs are to be avoided. The exercises of this nature must be of short duration followed by longer breaks.
The weight training is to be preceded a prolonged preparation of the supporting and motory apparatus.
Weight training has a favorable, influence in the postmenstruation period, when the exercises with a barbell can reach 60-70% of all the strength exercises. In this period most often maximum weight is achieved.
When we have a goal to develop women's maximum strength we must give preference to work up to refusal or 2-3:repetitions of 90-95% of the maximum weight.
Special attention is to be paid to squats with barbell at the back of the neck. The main thing to be taken into consideration is the connection between the pectoral girdle (that maintains the weight) and the legs (that perform yielding and overcoming work). We recommend about 50% of the leg exercises be other than a squat with a barbell at the back of the neck.
After the execution of weight training women athletes have to spend not less than 20-30 minutes for relaxation. Bathing after the weight training is to be done with hot water for a prolonged time and be finished with contrast bath (alternating hot and cool water).


Advantages women possess

Besides the above mentioned smaller strength capabilities than men, women have several advantages that have to be taken into consideration.

In general women are more flexible. Flexibility helps them in the technical performance of the movements. Our experience showed that women execute easily and more correctly the classical heavy athletics exercises - the snatch and the clean and jerk.
Women benefit of their greater flexibility since owing to it they are less likely to be injured in sports related activities.
Weight training is welcome and arouses the interest of sportswomen not only for the possible benefit with regard to the discipline they train. It also enables them to satisfy their natural striving for emancipation and equality, suppressed in them in the course of thousands of years. Entering an area of strength that until recently has been of interest only to men - they are very careful and concentrated, what makes work with them pleasant and fruitful.
Generally women are more diligent and disciplined. This is particularly important to meeting the main requirement of weight training progress - the regular workouts.
In conclusion
I do not doubt that, in spite of the aforementioned, most people perceive women's weightlifting as a rather dangerous job. It is important for the parts of the body under power strain to work in a most convenient position, favorable from a biomechanical point of view. At the same time, power strain in a number of sports involves unfavorable position of body parts, twisting of the joints and an unfavorable impact on woman's internal organs.

Certainly, the results achieved by women weightlifters will grow higher from now on with the application of correctly designed methods, however, weightlifting is not dangerous. Furthermore, it can become a very good vehicle to obtain physical and health strengthening of women.

This determines the great merits of, and respect to, those who have already begun and of whom we speak of as pioneers; those who have turned over a new page in the development of our sport.
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Old 03-21-06, 12:42 PM
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Interesting.
Not sure I agree with all of it, but thanks for posting - good read
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Old 03-21-06, 12:48 PM
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Interesting.
Not sure I agree with all of it, but thanks for posting - good read
The general concept is interesting, I am curious to know of the points that you disagree that with.
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Old 03-21-06, 12:57 PM
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Agreed, it is out dated. I just haven’t seen many solid articles or studies aimed specifically for women.
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Old 03-21-06, 04:07 PM
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The general concept is interesting, I am curious to know of the points that you disagree that with.
"After the execution of weight training, women athletes have to spend not less than 20-30 minutes for relaxation. That aims at both quicker recuperation and meeting aesthetic requirements."
My aesthetic requirements!!! Hahaha, thats too funny. There is nothing that I like more than leaving the gym just jacked up because my muscles are so pumped up. Perhaps not the most feminine of looks, but I will not be spending 30 minutes relaxing so that I don't look like a man on the way out! :laughnew:

"Weight training is welcome and arouses the interest of sportswomen not only for the possible benefit with regard to the discipline they train. It also enables them to satisfy their natural striving for emancipation and equality, suppressed in them in the course of thousands of years. Entering an area of strength that until recently has been of interest only to men - they are very careful and concentrated, what makes work with them pleasant and fruitful."

I didn't realise I was lifting to make up for the thousands of years of sexual inequality, I thought it was in increase strength and make me a better fighter.
Huh, go figure.

Yes, I admit the article is a bit outdated now, but I found some of the patronising implications funny thats all.
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Old 03-21-06, 04:17 PM
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Yes, I admit the article is a bit outdated now, but I found some of the patronising implications funny thats all.

I fully agree

:laughnew: :laughnew:
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Old 01-18-18, 01:56 PM
The Influence of Weightlifting on the Woman's Body Reply to Thread
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I do not doubt that, in spite of the aforementioned, most people perceive women's weightlifting as a rather dangerous job. Apropos of this, we can observe that there exists other sport in which the momentary strength resistance is considerably higher than in weightlifting. Such examples can be found in the track and field athletics - jumping, throwing, running 100m, acrobatics, gymnastics, rowing etc. It is also important that the technique of the competitive and auxiliary exercises in the weightlifting sport provide the possibility for muscles and parts of the body under power strain to work in a most convenient position, favorable from a bio mechanical point of view. At the same time power strain in a number of sports involves unfavorable position of body parts, twisting of the joints and unfavorable impact on woman's internal organs.
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Old 01-27-18, 11:59 AM
Influence of strength training on adult women's flexibility.
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The motivation behind the present examination was to explore the impact of 10 weeks of quality preparing on the adaptability of stationary moderately aged ladies. Twenty ladies were arbitrarily appointed to either a quality preparing gathering (n = 10; age, 37 +/ - 1.7 years; weight, 65.2 +/ - 10.7 kg; tallness, 157.7 +/ - 10.8 cm; and weight list, 25.72 +/ - 3.3 kg x m(- 2)) or a control gathering (n = 10; age, 36.9 +/ - 1.2 years; weight, 64.54 +/ - 10.18 kg; stature, 158.1 +/ - 8.9 cm; and weight file, 26.07 +/ - 2.8 kg x m(- 2)). The quality preparing program was an aggregate body session performed in a circuit mold and comprised of 7 practices performed for 3 circuits of 8 to 12 redundancies most extreme (RM), aside from the stomach practice which was performed for 15 to 20 RM. Adaptability estimations were taken for 10 enunciation developments for every and post preparing: bear flexion and augmentation, bear level habit and kidnapping, elbow flexion, hip flexion and expansion, knee flexion, and trunk flexion and expansion. Pr and post preparing, 10 RM quality altogether expanded (p < 0.05). Of the developments analyzed, just shoulder even dependence, hip flexion and expansion, and trunk flexion and augmentation exhibited noteworthy builds (p < 0.05). Neither elbow nor knee flexion demonstrated a noteworthy change with weight preparing. The control amass demonstrated no noteworthy change in any of the adaptability measures decided. Taking everything into account, weight preparing can expand adaptability in beforehand inactive moderately aged ladies in a few, yet not every single joint development.
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Old 04-02-18, 07:04 PM
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I do agree.
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Old 04-02-18, 10:09 PM
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Originally Posted by Derek Wilson View Post
I do agree.
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Old 05-07-18, 05:06 AM
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I am surprised too
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